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30.11.15 The Landscape of Armed Groups in the Eastern Congo (30/11/2015)


A publication by the Congo Research Group, based at the Center on International Cooperation of New York University:

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26 11 15 AI report - Draconian crackdown on dissent one year ahead of elections (26/11/2015)

see attachment

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12 09 15 - Dialogue: dossier Twangiza Mining (12/9/2015)

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19 06 14 AfricanArguments - The Mutarule massacre: conflict from below in eastern Congo – By Kris Berwouts (19/6/2014)

On the evening of Friday 6th June, at least 33 unarmed Congolese civilians were killed in and around the village of Mutarule, on the plains of the Ruzizi river, 9 km from Sange, between Uvira and Bukavu. The Minister of Communication and spokesman of the Congolese government, Laurent Mende, called the incident a revenge attack by the community of a cattle herder killed during an attempt to steal cows belonging to another farmer. The victims (8 children, 17 women and 8 men) belonged to the ethnic community of the Bafuliru.

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10 06 14 Kuenga Amani - Post-M23 Euphoria and the Recurrent Peace Dividends in Eastern DRC (10/6/2014)

About the Author

Christoph Vogel is an analyst and researcher at the University of Zurich. He writes atwww.christophvogel.net and tweets at www.twitter.com/ethuin.

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10 26 14 HRW: Summit Should Support Justice for Rape Victims (10/6/2014)

Countries Should Endorse Specialized Mixed Chambers

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30 25 14 Congho Ressource - The Lake that Probably Won't Kill You (anytime soon) (30/5/2014)

One of the most poignant memories I have of the Asian Tsunami is of a Sri Lankan official, in near-tears, trying to explain why his government hadn't anticipated the catastrophe. "We have three thousand years of court chronicles," he said. "There's no history of anything like this ever happening."

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28 05 14 UN News Service - Senior UN officials urge Brazzaville to halt expulsion of DR Congo nationals (28/5/2014)

Senior United Nations officials today demanded that Republic of the Congo immediately stop expelling citizens from the neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo, and called for an investigation into allegations of sexual violence and other human rights violations.

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15 05 14 UN - A Forum for Civil Society’s Consultation and Dialogue set up in Equateur Province (15/5/2014)

Mbandaka, 12 May 2014 – Civil Society Associations in Equateur province convened a workshop between 9 and 10 May 2014 in Mbandaka during which they set up a Framework for Consultations and Dialogue with a view to enhancing cohesion among them and to enable them to speak with one voice.

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25 04 14 Pambazuka - Kagame and the murder of millions in Congo and Rwanda (25/4/2014)

By Glen Ford

Paul Kagame, the U.S.-backed warlord and dictator of Rwanda, last week accused France and Belgium of complicity in the mass killings in his country 20 years ago. It is true that France and Belgium, along with Britain, Spain, Portugal, Italy, The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany, are collectively responsible for the extermination of hundreds of millions – of whole peoples – all across the globe. However, in the case of the Rwanda genocide of 1994, the main criminals are Paul Kagame, himself, and his allies in neighboring Uganda and in the United States. After the frenzy of killing was done, U.S. President Bill Clinton and Ugandan strongman Yoweri Museveni then joined with Kagame to launch a war against the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo that has claimed six million lives – the greatest genocide, by far, since World War Two.

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17 04 14 - Surrendering to the Big Picture: Historical and Legal Perspectives on Accountability in the Democratic Republic of Congo Following the Defeat of the March 23 Movement (17/4/2014)

Janet McKnight
Abstract

It remains to be seen whether the past few months will mark a genuine turning point in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), as the rebel faction March 23 Movement (M23) announced the end of its 20-month insurgency against the government on 5 November 2013. News of the rebel group’s surrender following its political and military defeat signals an important moment of hope and renewed prospects of peace and stability in a region prone to protracted armed conflict. However, long-term stability in the country and in the region will require a multi-faceted process consisting of comprehensive accountability for human rights violations that have been committed by all parties to the conflict. In this article, I will first lay out the historical context of the fighting and the root causes of conflict present long before M23’s entrance onto the scene as a splintered rebel faction so as to understand M23’s place within the country’s history of protracted violence. Next, I will explain the violations of international humanitarian and human rights law committed by all possible parties, including rebel and government groups, as well as individual criminal responsibility and corporate liability. Lastly, I will chart the pathways of criminal and social accountability at various levels of international and domestic justice systems to see how the DRC may continue to build long-term local stability in the eastern parts of the country by addressing the question of accountability for international crimes. This brief analysis aims to provide a broader understanding of a complex conflict beyond the defeat and disarmament of M23, albeit a key group in a region of contentious cross-border conflict.

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15 04 14 IRIN - Back to Rwanda (15/4/2014)

GOMA, 11 April 2014 (IRIN) - The Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) has long been one of the most significant armed groups active in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where it has been based ever since its founders fled neighbouring Rwanda after playing a key role in the 1994 genocide.

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15 04 14 IRIN - Fighting an invisible enemy in DRC (15/4/2014)

BISHONGERA, 9 April 2014 (IRIN) - It is difficult to identify the fighters of the Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda (FDLR), one of the many armed groups active in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), some of whose leaders played a key role in Rwanda’s genocide 20 years ago. Bearing neither uniform nor insignia, they are indistinguishable from the civilian population.

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10 04 14 - DRC: Some progress in the fight against impunity but rape still widespread and largely unpunished – UN report (10/4/2014)

NEW YORK / KINSHASA (9 April 2014) – Rape and sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) remain very serious concerns, with thousands of victims, in particular in the east of the country, over the past four years, according to a UN report released Wednesday. The report also indicates that, while some progress has been made in the fight against impunity for sexual violence, much more needs to be done to hold perpetrators of sexual violence accountable.

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02 04 14 IRIN - Growing up in war - the DRC's child soldiers (2/4/2014)

This boy was 11-years-old when he became a child soldier with an armed group. The UN has described child soldiering in the DRC as "systemic"
KIWANJA (NORTH KIVU PROVINCE), 31 March 2014 (IRIN) - When he was seven Dikembe Muamba* became a soldier on the orders of his uncle, a chief in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC) North Kivu Province.

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31 03 14 AfricanArguments - Congo: reading Kabila’s silences – By Kris Berwouts (31/3/2014)

On November 28th 2011, Joseph Kabila was elected for his second term as President of Congo’s Third Republic. The elections were so controversial that a climate of turmoil reigned on the streets of Kinshasa for months. The political situation was complex. Etienne Tshisekedi, Kabila’s main challenger, considered himself as the legitimate winner, as did many of his followers. Opposition and majority were not on speaking terms, but the situation was also very confused and tense within both groups.

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17 02 14 African Arguments - Vital Kamerhe: Kabila’s public enemy number one? (17/2/2014)

By Kris Berwouts

On Friday 7th and Sunday 9th of February, the Congolese opposition leader Vital Kamerhe and a delegation of his party tried to take a plane from Kinshasa to Goma, to complete a tour through eastern Congo. The authorities prevented his departure twice. There was also a strange indictment against him for an old case of defamation brought by MP Wivine Moleka. It’s possible that Kamerhe will now face a trial and up to 3 years imprisonment. Is Kabila’s former right hand man now becoming public enemy number one?

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08 02 14 Kongomani - Some thoughts and facts about the ongoing crisis in the DRC (Part 1) (8/2/2014)

Nothing seems very logic in the DRC: the soft boiling Congolese kettle of small scale wars in the east and in the south of the country, of the ongoing political gossip and corruption in Kinshasa and the ongoing exploitation of minerals in the south was suddenly boiling on the 30-st of December of last when several targets in the country where attacked by the followers of a certain Paul Joseph Mukungubila.

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05 02 14 IRIN: Thousands flee “scorched earth” campaign in DRC’s Katanga (5/2/2014)

Where children once played with beads and bicycle wheels, now stand only the shells of their homes: blackened wooden beams, cooking pots melted by fire, and mud blocks from the tumbled walls softening in the rain.

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27 01 14 Still waiting for Congo (Dan Simpson, Former US ambassador in DRC) (27/1/2014)

In general I try to stay away from matters regarding the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), even though I spent seven years of my life there with the Department of State.

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21 04 14 Human Rights Watch’s 2014 World Report (21/1/2014)

chapters about DRC, Burundi and Rwanda

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09 01 14 UN experts report, 11.13 (9/1/2014)

voir annexe

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07 01 14 Congo after M23: the prophet Mukungubila and the death of Colonel Mamadou – By Kris Berwouts (7/1/2014)

Kris Berwouts has, over the last 25 years, worked for a number of different Belgian and international NGOs focused on building peace, reconciliation, security and democratic processes. Until 2012, he was the Director of EurAc, the network of European NGOs working for advocacy on Central Africa. He now works as an independent expert on Central Africa.

Kris’ current field research is made possible by a working grant of the Pascal Decroos Fund for Investigative Journalism.

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03 01 14 Global Research - The Post-colonial Imperial Agenda: America and France Join Hands in the Destabilization of the African Continent (3/1/2014)

Transforming Countries into Territories
By Abayomi Azikiwe
Pan-African News Wire
Region: sub-Saharan Africa

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03 01 14 Global Research - Africa and U.S. Imperialism: Post-Colonial Crises and the Imperatives of the African Revolution By Abayomi Azikiwe (3/1/2014)


Pan-African News Wire
Region: sub-Saharan Africa

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17 12 13 Reuters EXCLUSIVE-Congo's army accused of abuse as rebels regroup in Rwanda -U.N. experts (17/12/2013)

By Louis Charbonneau and Michelle Nichols
UNITED NATIONS, Dec 16 (Reuters) - Recently defeated M23 rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo have continued to recruit fighters in neighboring Rwanda while the Congolese army has been involved in human rights abuses and corruption, according to a confidential U.N. report.

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04 12 13 World Time - Congo’s Forgotten Curse: Epidemic of Female-on-Female Rape (4/12/2013)

By Jessica Hatcher / Goma Dec. 03, 2013

o In a secure darkened room, Marie, a 36-year-old mother of six, whispers and struggles to make eye contact. A shoe trader, she regularly travels by bus to sell her wares in remote parts of the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Last year, her bus broke down on the often impassable forest road to the town of Walikale. Her bags were too heavy for her to continue by foot, so she resorted to a bicycle taxi. Bandits pulled her off the road while she waited for one to arrive. “When I saw women, I thought I was saved,” she recalls. Not so. The women were armed and dressed in military uniform. They argued with the men in the group over who would “have” Marie. The women won.

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02 12 13 France 24: Africa mourns ‘King of Congolese rumba’ (2/12/2013)

Fans across Africa and the rest of the world are paying tributes to Tabu Ley Rochereau a day after the legendary Congolese musician who inspired a continent died in a Belgian hospital aged 76.

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02 12 13 Kuwait Times: Congolese teenager stranded in Kuwait – Human trafficking victim narrates ordeal (2/12/2013)

When 16-year-old Furaha left her home country of Congo, she thought that she finally had a place in Kuwait where she could study Arabic and learn more about her new religion. Little did she know that she was the latest victim of human trafficking in a country that has been struggling in the past few years to convince the international community that it is taking serious efforts to tackle this crime.

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29 11 13 OSI - PRESENTATION OF DEFENSE EVIDENCE ENDS IN BEMBA TRIAL (29/11/2013)

A PROJECT OF THE OPEN SOCIETY JUSTICE INITIATIVE

THE TRIAL OF

JEAN-PIERRE BEMBA GOMBO, defendant

by Wakabi Wairagala

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28 11 13 The Wall Stree Journal: United Nations Makes Fresh Push for Congo Peace Deal (28/11/2013)

The United Nations is spearheading efforts to conclude peace talks between the Congolese government and M23 rebel group, in a fresh push aimed at consolidating security in the mineral-rich but chaotic eastern Congo.

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27 11 13 FotC: A Prescription for Lasting Peace & Stability (27/11/2013)

BY KAMBALE MUSAVULI,

The 17-year quest for peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo has taken a significant step in the right direction; however, many concerns remain.

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21 11 13 Huffington Post: Saving Mothers' and Babies' Lives in DRC (21/11/2013)

When Agnes Lunkembesa gave birth to her ninth child, she decided enough was enough. But although she knew perfectly well how babies were made, she had no idea how to stop them being made. Then she met Seraphine Lumfuankenda, a voluntary community health worker who walks 60 kilometres every week, going from village to village in the hills of southwestern Democratic Republic of Congo, offering advice about family planning and basic health care. Agnes listened to what Seraphine told her, took her advice, and, four years after the birth of her ninth child, she has had no more. Outside her home, Seraphine leads her neighbours in a song, conducting vigorously with packets of contraceptives in each hand.

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18 11 13 IRIN: Congo-Kinshasa: Obstacles to Return in Eastern DRC (19/11/2013)

Tens of thousands of refugees and displaced people are starting to return to their homes in the two territories of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) previously occupied by the M23 rebels.

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15 11 13 News 24: M23 bosses disagree over peace deal - report (15/11/2013)

Cape Town - Leaders of the Democratic Republic of Congo’s M23 rebel group have reportedly split into two groups amid revelations that some of the rebels are ready to sign a peace deal with the government, a report said on Thursday.

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15 11 13 Voice of America: Expanded Role for UN Troops in DRC (15/11/2013)

The United Nations Intervention Brigade (MONUSCO) in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was given an expanded mandate that went beyond peacekeeping - allowing offensive operations to support the Congolese Army against M23 rebels. It was a pivotal move in defeating M23, and what it could mean for continuing operations against other rebel groups in the region, and for other peacekeeping operations in Africa.

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13 11 13 African Arguments -Congo: is this the end of the world’s worst war? (13/11/2013)

By Richard Dowden

t may be just a pause but the recent defeat of M23 in Eastern Congo could mark the end of the world’s worst and longest-running war. No one will ever know how many people were killed directly or died of preventable diseases as a result. The frequently-quoted death toll up to 2007 is 5.4 million. But that, as Stalin said, is just a statistic. No one knows and no one can fathom the pain and loss that this war has cost. We will only ever know a tiny fraction of it from survivors.

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13 11 13 AP: Uganda says M23 rebel commander not under arrest (13/11/2013)

A Ugandan government spokesman says the military commander of Congo's M23 rebels "is not a prisoner" in Uganda and may only be handed over to Congolese authorities after a final peace accord has been signed.

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12 11 13 AFP: Oxfam warns DR Congo conflict far from over (12/11/2013)

British charity Oxfam warned Monday that the conflict in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo was far from over and said it was vital to set up a political process to address deep-seated grievances in the troubled region.

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12 11 13 Voice of America: M23 Leader: DRC Needs Political, not Military Solution (12/11/2013)

The leader of the M23 rebel movement told VOA the crisis in the Democratic Republic of Congo requires a political, not military solution.

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11 11 13 Reuters INSIGHT-Rebel defeat boosts Kabila but peace in Congo a distant prospect (11/11/2013)

* Kabila 'riding high' after defeat of M23 rebels, analyst says
* Rumours that president will change constitution to seek third term
* More active international helped defeat M23
* Huge obstacles remain to bring peace to Congo's lawless east
By Pete Jones

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08 11 13 M23 and the Unseen High-tech Genocide (8/11/2013)

Latest Congo propaganda

by Keith Harmon Snow / November 8th, 2013

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08 11 13 AFP: US pressure on Rwanda key to ending DR Congo rebellion (8/11/2013)

The United States exerted key pressure on Rwanda to halt its support for M23 rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo, seeking to end the latest conflict in the Great Lakes region of Africa.

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08 11 13 AFP: Congolese army savour victory in former M23 stronghold (8/11/2013)

The heavily-guarded base of the defeated M23 rebels once lay among the gentle slopes of Chanzu, but is now a mess of stolen weapons, burning vehicles -- and Rwandan military materiel.

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07 11 13 CNN: Why peace promise won't end Congo's troubles (7/11/2013)

Recent military gains against the M23 militia in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo are an encouraging development, a respite from the impasses faced by Congo.

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07 11 13 AFP: UN to reinforce DR Congo borders after rebel defeat: envoy (7/11/2013)

A UN envoy said Wednesday that UN troops would help reinforce the Democratic Republic of Congo's borders to stop rebels and arms getting into other countries after the defeat of M23 mutineers. The United States and other leading UN Security Council members widely welcomed the rout of M23 at closed talks on the conflict-stricken country, diplomats at the meeting said.

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07 11 13 AP: After Congo rebels end fight, challenges remain (7/11/2013)

A Congolese army mortar shell destroyed Emmanuel Kazingufu's home in mid-August as soldiers hunted down M23 rebels. Now that the rebels have given up their fight, the 27-year-old is rebuilding his house.

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06 11 13 UNOPS - Mission at Kibumba "Three towers" site, after the discovering of human remnants. (6/11/2013)

see attachment

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03 11 13 Los Angeles Times: Success against Congo rebels may signal sea change in peacekeeping (3/11/2013)

Their behavior was scandalous: Soldiers traded their guns for gold. They sexually abused children they were supposed to protect. They barricaded themselves in their barracks rather than fight.

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02 11 13 Washington Post: U.N. fights for peace in Congo (2/11/2013)

With shells flying overhead, the Congolese soldiers pressed forward on a desolate stretch of road near the Rwandan border. Ahead of them was a rebel army, firing relentlessly. Behind them, a new U.N. combat brigade waited in white armored vehicles, ready to serve as backup.

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